Alter No-humano. Referencias
Identidades con formas no humanas
Uno de los aspectos que provocan escepticismo sobre el Trastorno de Identidad Disociativo es la existencia de identidades que no se identifican a sí mismos como humanos. Los críticos, escépticos y gente no informada en trauma usan este aspecto aparentemente fantástico — en el sentido de fantasía — como prueba de lo absurdo y toman dos posturas; no existe el TID en lo absoluto, o, si existe, es imposible que existan alters no humanos y jamás han sido documentados.
Un alter no humano puede resultar de maltrato relacionado con animales, tratar a un niño como animal, por hacerle cometer actos inhumanos, por miedo a los humanos, o por la identificación y necesidad de protección.
(Por si te lo preguntas, siempre debe tratárseles como humanos, como personas)
Aquí juntamos referencias bibliográficas de identidades no humanas y su explicación.
Una de las principales referencias está precisamente en el Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales V (imagen 1)
«Del mismo modo, en los lugares donde la «posesión» es común (p. ej., las zonas rurales del mundo en vías de desarrollo, entre ciertos grupos religiosos en Estados Unidos y Europa), las identidades fragmentadas pueden tomar la forma de espíritus posesivos, divinidades, demonios, animales o personajes mitológicos.»
American Psychiatric Association – APA. (2014). Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales DSM-5
Sometimes parts (originally, actual small-bodied children) are taught that they are not human at all. They may be robots or computers, not permitted to have any feelings. Or sex machines, or killing machines, that just perform their functions without any emotions. But they are actually parts of a human brain, and, as with the soldiers, other parts hold the feelings for them. Sometimes, robotic parts are only fragments, not full-fledged insiders; they understand very little.
Miller, Alison. Becoming Yourself: Overcoming Mind Control and Ritual Abuse. 2014. Karnak.
Often the new personality would indicate its identity by name. In addition to describing and presenting various adult personalities, which carried out different tasks of adult life – e.g. one who went to work, one who was sociable, one who could be flirtatious, and a depressed one who was regarded as the main personality – she also described child parts and, more surprisingly, some non-human entities. These latter parts included an angel and a demon, both of which would on occasion appear to take executive control of Stephanie and would speak to me.
These ‘alter’ personalities can assume almost any identity since they seem to be constructed on the ‘logic’ of dream or trance, in which anything is possible. Thus, alters may be male or female, adult or children, human or non-human. Quasi-spiritual entities are not uncommon.
Sinason, V. (2011). Attachment, trauma and multiplicity: working with dissociative identity disorder. Dark Dimensions of multiple personality
Animal-like behaviors have been described in abused children (the Cinderella Syndrome) (Goodwin, Cauthorne, & Rada, 1989; Goodwin, 1989) as well as in adults with multiple personality disorder. «Wild children» described historically have been thought to behave like animals because of imitation of animal foster mothers, or because of developmental delays due to severe abuse and neglect (Freedman & Brown, 1968; Singh & Zingg, 1942; Itard, 1962).
Animal familiars of witches and shamans may be another cross-cultural constellation based on the clustering of childhood trauma, reliance on dissociative symptoms, and unusual and ambivalent attachment to animals because they were part of the original trauma (Carlson, 1986; Smith, 1989). Freud once mentioned a case involving transient assumption of an animal identity, describing a child who, when his kitten died, announced that he was now the kitten and crawled about on all fours (Freud, 1948, p. 67).
Smith, S. G. (1989). Multiple personality disorder with human and non-human subpersonality components. Dissociation 2:52-56.
There is also enforced sexual abuse with the family pet. Cult leaders mandate sexual abuse of children for many reasons. They intend to destroy children’s self-esteem so that they will start to think of themselves as non-human objects designed to do others’ bidding. Incest inserts a rift in family relationships and creates intense jealousy between the incestuous abuser’s spouse and the child victim and between siblings.
Hoffman, W., & Miller, A. (2017). From the Trenches: A Victim and Therapist Talk about Mind Control and Ritual Abuse. Routledge.
Some people with DID have animal parts. While in animal identity states, they may exhibit animal-like behaviors, such as growling, scratching, or running on all fours (Goodwin & Attias, 1999; Putnam, 1989). They may also hear animal calls inside the head (Goodwin & Attias, 1999) or have visual flashbacks involving animal identities.
Sometimes, parts named after the cat family (leopard, cougar, tiger) may serve as protector states that are allowed to express the emotion the host cannot. One of my patients would begin growling and switch into Tiger when she became upset.
Howell, E. F. (2011). Understanding and Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Relational Approach: 49 (1.). Routledge.
For all these reasons, it is critical to get to know everyone who exists in one’s System, and, unless parts are causing harm to the body or System, to figure out the ways and means of acceptance, tolerance, cooperation, and getting along. Just as in the outside world, you don’t necessarily have to adopt someone’s beliefs or lifestyle in order to respect them as a fellow human being and get along with them.
* Occasionally, there may even be non-human (‘animal’) parts.
A.T.W.. Got Parts? An Insider’s Guide to Managing Life Successfully with Dissociative Identity Disorder (New Horizons in Therapy Book 1) . Modern History Press. (2005)
Organized abusers often want alters to believe they are anything other than parts of an abused child. One simple way of creating non-human alters is to split off an alter by inflicting pain while the child is exposed to circumstances that lead her to believe she is not human. For example, the child is given a hallucinogenic drug while suggestions are made about demons, and the other people are wearing demon costumes… Or the child is put in a cage with a fierce dog, and only fed dog food when she begs for it like a dog. Or the child is given a paralyzing drug so that she cannot move, shown movies about aliens, and told she is an alien who can observe this world but cannot act in it.
Miller, A. (2019). HEALING THE UNIMAGINABLE: Treating Ritual Abuse and Mind Control by Alison Miller. Taylor & Francis.
“Marcie, the boy dog” differed from “Magic Cat” in several important respects. Although both children activated their animal alter egos in response to stress, this happened much less frequently with “Magic Cat.”.
Md, F. P. W. (1997). Dissociation in Children and Adolescents: A Developmental Perspective (1.a ed.). Guilford Publications.
While the victim of a single acute trauma may say she is “not herself’ since the event, the victim of chronic trauma may lose the sense that she has a self. Survivors may describe themselves as reduced to a nonhuman life form (Lovelace and McGrady, 1980; Timerman, 1981). Niederland (1968), in his clinical observations of concentration camp survivors, noted that alterations of personal identity were a constant feature of the survivor syndrome. While the majority of his patients complained, “I am now a different person,” the most severely harmed stated simply, “I am not a person.”
Herman, J. L. (1992). Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(3), 377–391. doi:10.1002/jts.2490050305
Working with animal alters is helpful in addressing the extreme guilt resulting from participation in acts felt to be inhuman. Because of the victim’s induction as a co-participant in animal torture, the issue ofresponsibility has become even more muddled than in other incest situations. The animal is often chosen for victimization because it is the child’s pet. From the patient’s point of view, their pet was victimized because they loved it. Therefore, the child’s love itself is contaminated and potentially lethal. This, together with the victim’s extreme guilt about the seriousness ofthe infraction, leads to self-esteem deficits at the level of not experiencing oneself as a member of the human race.
Hendrikson, K. M., T. McCarty, and J. Goodwin 1990 Animal Alters: Case Reports. Dissociation 3:218–221.
En la bibliografía especializada sobre el TDI, se han descrito diversos tipos de partes disociativas de la personalidad (que no necesariamente se excluyen mutuamente) (e.g., Boon & Van der Hart, 1995; Kluft, 1984, 1996a; Putnam, 1989; Ross, 1997). Estas incluyen (1) partes anfitrionas; (2) partes infantiles; (3) partes protectoras y auxiliaries; (4) autoprotectores internos; (5) partes persecutorias, basadas en introyecciones de los agresores; (6) partes suicidas; (7) partes del sexo opuesto; (8) partes promiscuas; (9) administradores y partes obsesivo-compulsivas; (10) partes que abusan de substancias; (11) partes autistas y discapacitadas; (12) partes con talentos o habilidades especiales; (13) partes anestésicas o analgésicas; (14) imitadores e impostores; (15) demonios y espíritus; (16) animales y objetos tales como árboles; y (17) partes pertenecientes a una raza diferente.
Van der Hart, O., Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Steele, K., van der Hart, O., & Ruiz, F. C. (2011). El yo atormentado: La disociación estructural y el tratamiento de la traumatización crónica. Desclée De Brouwer.
Not all alters are human. Some alters can take the form of animals, inanimate objects, or even fantasy beings. For some with DID, humans come to represent threats and become associated with great fear. Because of this, some people with DID will have alters that take the form of an animal or some other object because these are viewed as safer.
Alderman, T., & Marshall, K. (1998). Amongst Ourselves: A Self-help Guide to Living with Dissociative Identity Disorder. New Harbinger Publications.
That’s because I just said it was me and Amber. I didn’t say we were little girls. We’re not there. We’re ghosts.”
“Oh. I see. This is you and your sister dressed up like ghosts. Is it at Halloween time?”
“No. We’re not dressed up. We are ghosts.”
“But like I said, we aren’t little girls. We’re ghosts. Ghosts don’t get lonely. It’s nice being alone, when you’re a ghost. We just float around, go way up high, and look down on people doing things. But they can’t see us, ’cause we’re invisible, so they don’t know we’re doing it.”
Hayden, Torey. Ghost Girl (1991)
“Corvus Corax.” She spoke the Latin species name for the common raven.
“You know Latin?”
“No. That is the official name of the raven.”
“You like ravens.”
“I am a raven.”
“You look like a girl.”
“Funny. You know what I mean.”
Perry, Bruce D.; Szalavitz, Maia. The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog: And Other Stories from a Child Psychiatrist’s Notebook. Basic Books.
Instead, often in a sea of narcissism, the caretakers were more concerned with their own needs than those of the child. In malignant families, the child was seen more as a resource to the parent or caretaker than vice versa. The child learned to see him- or herself through the caretaker’s eyes, as unimportant, not human, and an object to be used and/or blamed.
Lanius, U. F., PhD, Paulsen, S. L., PhD, & Corrigan, F. M., MD. (2014). Neurobiology and Treatment of Traumatic Dissociation: Towards an Embodied Self. Springer Publishing.
Actualizando poco a poco.
Otros artículos de referencias: